三．Montessori: Special educational method
Montessori is born in Italy, have a good family education since childhood. She devote to support the developed opportunities and environment to the child, she is not only a great educationalist but also a famous scientist, she devote her lifetime for the child and the rebirth of human spirit.
The special educational method is to build the specialized educational place ‘‘Children’s home’’ that proposed by Montessori, studying every child’s individual difference carefully and let them accept the regular training to foster their good life etiquettes and sense training. She was insisted on continuing further study in medical college, although she against all odds and become the first doctress in Italy when she was 26. During this period, she came into contact with the toddlers who have developmental problems. She found that the acts of their hands can effect the intelligence development.
In 1898, Montessori pointed on a lecture: Children’s psychological defects are actually educational issues, not medical ones, so training and education are more necessary than treatment. Montessori has designed a set of ‘‘special observation rules’’ to observe the needs of low IQ children and help to improve their intelligence. Encourage these children to exercise themselves through ‘‘hand brain collaboration’’. Two years later, these children not only learned to read and write, but also completed the knowledge test that should be mastered as a normal child.
As a result, Montessori gradually turned to normal children. Since low-energy children can catch up with normal children through exercise, can healthy children achieve higher standards through exercise? She firmly believes that the continuous advancement of education can enhance human wisdom. However, the reality is that the level of intellectual development of many healthy children is either suppressed or delayed by the wrong educational concept, or both.
The “Children’s Home” created by Montessori has gradually shown astounding results. With the extensive coverage of media in various countries, more and more scholars are coming.
Montessori’s entire educational philosophy is summarized as follows: Education is to provide a correct orientation for children’s thoughts and behaviors, to order their thoughts and behaviors. This is a common shortcoming of children, such as selfishness, noisy, not listening, and talking, etc. These common shortcomings can be transformed into self-control, courtesy, and the ability to enjoy freedom and rules.