When steel is utilized in the construction procedure, the material has to be custom shaped to fit pre-existing templates. Last time I’ve explained the various kind of steel ingots made by the Tatara, both in a direct steel producing approach as nicely as an indirect one particular, and this is precisely the point where this write-up start. Let’s supposed that he would work on a kobuse, 1 of the most well-known lamination style: hard steel jacket and low carbon steel core. Steel is needed in a lot of regions. But manufacturing steel is an elaborate approach employing up many of our all-natural resources. If steel is recycled from cars, it will drastically minimize the want to manufacture new steel which in turn will benefit the atmosphere. Instead, what some modern day producers use is the hot bluing procedure. In this method, the parts are initially degreased, as in the browning and cold-bluing processes. Next, the steel components to be blued are dropped in a hot resolution of potassium nitrate, sodium hydroxide and water. Stainless steel components are dropped in a hot resolution of nitrates and chromates. The method causes a layer of black oxide of iron (Fe3O4) to kind. Care need to be observed in the course of this method as these solutions will eat via leather, wool, skin etc. and the fumes can result in deterioration of any metals in the region. Hence, hot bluing is very best left to factory environments and not suitable for residence experimenters. Following a although, the components are removed and rinsed in hot water to cease the bluing approach. The parts are then oiled and reassembled. Third, all through the whole sword history elsewhere in the world, the approach was to create a laminated structure of diverse varieties of steel (and possibly iron) at the starting when technology was still really primitive, and then switch to all steel, and possibly mono steel ( a single piece of steel) constructions but in Japan, the average “history” book claims otherwise, with early Jokoto swords becoming made with a single (inferior) piece of steel and then with the improvement of the Nihonto, there was a shift towards the lamination approach. The next post will deal with manufacturing of modern day steel barrels. One of the essential factor in Japanese bladesmithing is the selective hardening also recognized as differential hardening. This method enable the blade to have various level of hardness with various steel’s phases in amongst the edge (which will be martensite), the sides and the core (which will be pearlite and ferrite ). Furthermore, if two edges collide in a perpendicular angle (virtually not possible to achieve in a sword fight of any type) the tougher ones could bite into the softer ones, without becoming broken. On a side note, the high carbon steel pieces, either tamahagane or sagegane, will still have a extremely high carbon content (possibly around 1% or far more) which is still as well higher for blade making, and want additional refinement. On the other hand, if the steel had a lower amount of carbon, the fracture would have look like a deformation and the material would have been considerably more less complicated to bend. In September 2002, the EPA launched a rare “priority review” of C8—a sign that regulation could be looming. By this point, 3M was shutting down C8 production, and DuPont had begun manufacturing the chemical itself. Perhaps anticipating that its calculations would quickly come below scrutiny, DuPont moved to a far more accurate program for measuring C8 in groundwater. This was confident to show that C8 levels were larger than DuPont had claimed was safe. EPA greater buckle their seat belts,” Reilly wrote. We are exceeding the levels we set as our own guideline.” Indeed, the new method found that C8 levels in Small Hocking’s water had been 37 instances DuPont’s security threshold. This method is called hisukuri (火造り).Right after the forging and designing of the blade is completed, the smith grinds (shiage – 仕上げ) the blade in order to give an initial appropriate thickness to the edge. At this point much of the blade is completed simply because soon after the heath therapy you can’t get rid of a lot of material. Possibly the terms have changed for these processes through history, but what you call cold bluing is nowadays referred to as “rust bluing” or “slow rust bluing” and cold bluing is used to describe a technique exactly where a chemical is applied to metal that is unheated or slightly heated and no carding or placing in boiling water is carried out afterward.
There is a fantastic need for this service and skilled workers who know how to do it simply because steel is such a common developing material. It is comprised of iron and carbon as well as other alloy components such as vanadium, manganese, tungsten, and chromium based upon its intended use. For example spring steel has quite tiny alloy, alloy steel has only non-carbon components, stainless steel has at least 10.five percent chromium, and maraging steel includes nickel. Other types of steel consist of weathering steel and tool steel that is used for creating tools. Austempering: The austempering approach is the same as martempering, except the quench is interrupted and the china cnc supplier steel is held in the molten salt bath at temperatures between 205°C and 540°C, and then cooled at a moderate price. The resulting steel, called bainite, produces an acicular microstructure in the steel that has great strength (but significantly less than martensite), greater ductility, larger influence resistance, and significantly less distortion than martensite steel. The disadvantage of austempering is it can only be utilised on a couple of steels, and it demands a specific salt bath. There are numerous distinct grades of stainless steel with differing mechanical and chemical properties. For firearms, the grade generally selected is SAE 416 grade This is a martensitic steel with sulfur content material, that has excellent machining properties and can be hardened later with heat remedy. Due to its good machining properties, barrels produced with stainless steel exhibit much better accuracy than created with chrome-molybdenum steel. This is why target shooters choose stainless steel barrels for their weapons. Stainless steel is much more expensive even though and also has slightly much less life than chrome-molybdenum steel barrels due to less hardness, which is why military weapons use chrome-molybdenum steel. The drill bit is fed into the barrel at a slow rate of approximately one particular inch (2.five cm.) per minute, so a 20-inch M-16 rifle barrel will take about 20 minutes to drill completely. The drill bit is initially held in the straight position by the guide bushes and prevented from moving side to side, but as it penetrates deeper into the barrel, the sides of the hole itself avoid the bit from moving about too considerably. Variations in the consistency of the barrel material can also cause the drill bit to wander a tiny. The barrel must also be straightened (or trued) before being mounted on the deep drill, since the barrel is rotated at high speed in the course of the drilling process and any imbalance in the shape of the barrel will be magnified when it is spinning at such higher speeds. Males who knowledge orgasm denial not only enjoy the improved physical and emotional intimacy you share, but they actually locate they also enjoy the physical sensation of not cumming. Yes, it’s challenging at the time and “in the moment”, but when they fall back from that scrumptious edge they find the residual feeling is exquisite. The other variety is a stainless steel alloy such as 416 variety stainless steel This is not a true totally austenitic stainless steel such as the kinds utilized in generating cutlery products like knives and forks. The 416 sort stainless steel is a martensitic steel which can be hardened by heat treating, equivalent to carbon steel. It is far more accurately a high chrome content (> 10%) steel getting adequate sulphur to give it excellent machining properties. This steel is normally utilized by target shooters and is regarded as to be less complicated to machine accurately than chrome-moly steels. It is also a lot more costly than chrome-moly steel, has lesser life and is a lot more challenging to black. Hence, military and hunting rifles use chrome-moly steel whilst target shooters favor stainless steel. Now days with the leaps and bounds in the field of science and literature, there are quantity of blogs and overview websites dedicated solely to the goal of commenting on goods that are utilized in the household as of nowadays. Individuals need to take time off and scour the net and go through critiques for certain stainless steel juicer brands, which will enable you to decide on the greatest juicer for your household from a reputed business dealing in stainless steel juicer parts and items. Appear out for simple models that can be trusted to do what they require, rather than go in for hi-tech models. This procedure was also utilized to consolidate the bloom if the beginning material was tamahagane (higher carbon bloomery steel).
This approach is repeated a lot more than when each and every time the steel is folded, it loose carbon, mentioned element is spread evenly across the billet, and the slag inclusions are squeezed out from the material. Steel is much more difficult to cast than iron. It has a greater melting point and greater shrinkage rate, which needs consideration in the course of mold design and style. Risers ought to be given more capacity to draw from as the metal cools and shrinks. Focus ought to be paid to the thickness of mold cavities, as thinner areas will cool faster than thicker areas, which can develop internal tension points that can lead to fracture. And, unlike Srivastava, he and Marge had been willing to do the grunt operate, which, as it turned out, was no modest challenge. Lottery terminals in comfort shops could print only 10 slips of paper at a time, with up to ten lines of numbers on every single slip (at $1 per line), which meant that if you wanted to bet $100,000 on Winfall, you had to stand at a machine for hours upon hours, waiting for the machine to print ten,000 tickets. Code in the buy. Push the Print” button. Wait at least a complete minute for the ten slips to emerge. Code in the next acquire. Hit Print.” Wait once again. Jerry and Marge knew all the convenience shop owners in town, so no one gave them a tough time when they showed up in the morning to print tickets literally all day. If clients wondered why the unassuming couple had suddenly created an obsession with gambling, they did not ask. Often the tickets jammed, or the cartridges ran out of ink. You just have to set there,” Jerry said. A significantly less confident individual might have stopped there. But Jerry figured it was mere negative luck. Odds are just odds, not guarantees. Flip a quarter six occasions and you might get six heads even though you have far better odds of getting three heads and 3 tails. But flip it 5,000 instances and you are going to approach 2,500 heads and 2,500 tails. Jerry’s mistake had been risking too small money. To align his own final results with the statistical odds, he just necessary to get a lot more lottery tickets. The following year, DuPont unveiled a new slogan: Better Factors for Much better Living … Via Chemistry.” It wasn’t so a lot a advertising and marketing catchphrase as a blueprint for a utopian future. By means of the marvels of science, synthetic materials would totally free men and women from mundane tasks, enabling them to lead lives of leisure and ease. Chemical compounds added to stainless steel protect the material in its particular application. A distinct stainless steel is used for an indoor refrigerator that does not contend with humidity, rain, snow or heat. Outside gas barbeque grills use 18 gauge 304 stainless steel since of the nickel and chromium. Nickel is a hardening agent. Nickel is shiny and eye-catching but its major benefit is as a hardener. When stainless begins to rust it shows up as “pits”. Pitting occurs as a small violation in the surface of the stainless like a dot. As a hardening agent, nickel will typically stop this from starting. The process of melting and re-molding the available steel saves far more power than the approach generation of steel from iron ore. Manufacturing steel entails transporting iron ore to a refinery and making use of big amounts of power for steel creation. In the week leading up to the Money WinFall drawing of August 16, 2010, the state had not announced a roll-down, simply because the jackpot was only $1.6 million it did not look that it would attain the essential $2 million. Harvey and his MIT friends saw their opening. Over 3 and a half days, they bought an astonishing 700,000 lottery tickets, costing $1.four million. This was more than sufficient to tip the jackpot over $two million before lottery officials knew what was happening—and prior to they could announce the roll-down. No one else knew that the cash was going to roll down, so the other bettors, including Jerry and Marge, did not get tickets. The MIT group hoovered up a $700,000 money profit. Although I have already addressed the topic in the earlier report, blast furnaces technology will create a greater steel (in the Japanese context, the Zuku oshi tatara approach) compared to a bloomery furnace, but for the duration of the fining procedure (turning cast iron into steel), impurities will be reintroduced in the steel and the carbon content material will be uneven across the new ingots.
The US military wants their barrels to last longer and work properly under automatic fire, therefore they are prepared to pay the extra charges linked with 4150 grade steel barrels. When you see barrels labelled “mil-spec”, these are most likely created of 4150 grade steel. That does not mean 4140 grade steel is poor – in reality, it works effectively for civilian applications and does last for a lengthy time as nicely, which is why you discover so many manufacturers producing barrels out of 4140 steel. Process annealing: A approach utilised to relieve pressure in a cold-worked carbon steel with significantly less than .3% C. The steel is usually heated to 550-650 °C for 1 hour, but occasionally temperatures as higher as 700 °C. The image rightward shows the area exactly where approach annealing happens. Morever in the paper the swords analyzed have been certainly created by multiple pieces of diverse steel welded together, and this were a Solingen and a Toledo sword, so among the most worthwhile makers of the time of the 16th and 17th century. Steel is also a recyclable material. Most businesses pay hefty landfill costs for non-recyclable construction supplies and constructing elements. If you use steel, your firm will have one point significantly less to be concerned about. Due to the public and environmentalists’ popular demand for decreasing unnecessary building wastes, there are now removal firms that have subsidized applications, wherein they will collect steel and other creating wastes at no extra charge. The requirements for 4140 and 4150 grade steels has been about since about 1920 or so. As we noted a couple of paragraphs above, the difference amongst 4140 steel and 4150 steel is the carbon content (about .40% for 4140 steel and .50% for 4150 steel). So the distinction among these two steel alloys is only that 4150 steel has roughly .1% far more carbon. However, this further .1% tends to make a big distinction in the hardness, heat resistance and resistance to put on of 4150 steel, compared to 4140 steel. It also makes 4150 steel so considerably tougher to machine and consequently increases the cost of manufacturing barrels. It is critical for the hamon to be situated on the edge and to be a rather little fractions of the blade, otherwise if really higher carbon is used, you will end up with the shinshinto’s problems. With ultrasonic cleaners, labor costs, and the price and use of chemical compounds are drastically decreased. The components are placed in the cleaning tank, and then the timer is set. After the timer period is up, the components are now cleaned, with all the contamination completely removed. Supervision is not needed for the cleaning procedure, enabling the operators to full other tasks as the ultrasonic cleaner functions. With contemporary steel manufacturing processes, it is attainable to handle the quantity of carbon in the steel uniformly, which has removed considerably of the original reason for case hardening. Nevertheless, it is nevertheless desirable in some situations to harden the surface, although leaving the inside of the element resilient and difficult. In this scenario, case-hardening functions better, due to the fact the modern day steel manufacturing processes distribute carbon uniformly by means of the sample, not just at the surface. Hence, in the present day, firing pins and bolt action faces are nonetheless case-hardened, because these components are topic to shock impact and higher pressures. Replica weapons are also case-hardened, so as to highlight the metal working strategies of the period. That August, the Tennants’ lawyer, Rob Bilott, stumbled across the document referring to C8 and began searching for a lot more information. There was nearly nothing at all in the public record—in reality, the only clues Bilott could locate at the time have been in the 3M press release. The judge in the Tennant case sooner or later forced DuPont to turn more than thousands of documents on C8. And that is when the image finally snapped into concentrate. For far more specifics read the post, Why the Medical Sector Has Increased Its Use of Ultrasonic Cleaning ”. As a leader amongst ultrasonic cleaner producers , Kaijo Shibuya supplies in depth experience with a broad item line and outstanding buyer support to address your industrial cleaning specifications. Make contact with them at info@ or get in touch with 408-675-5575. While the cold heading approach is great for modest metal fasteners such as screws, contacts, get in touch with rivets, and other fasteners, it is not ideal for every thing. Bigger projects could be served far better by an additional kind of metalworking. Furthermore, cold heading firms can only use certain kinds of materials with their stamping machines. Metals such as steel, aluminum, copper, and nickel operate nicely with cold heading machines. As do valuable metals such as silver, gold, and platinum. Iron, nevertheless, is an exception. As are magnesium, refractory metals, titanium, and zinc.
And they had been content to share their excellent fortune. Like lotteries in other states, the Michigan Lottery welcomed huge betting groups after all, the much more people who played, the far more income the state got to play with. Jerry saw that workplace pools and other massive bettors were allowed to play as corporations as an alternative of men and women, and it seemed to him that the state was practically inviting groups to play Winfall for massive stakes. So in the summer time of 2003, about six months after Jerry bought his initial tickets, the Selbees asked their six youngsters if they wanted in. The little ones ponied up varying amounts for Jerry to wager on their first try together, the household bet $18,000 and lost most of it, simply because an additional player hit the six-quantity jackpot. When Jerry insisted this was just negative luck, Marge and the little ones decided to think him. They let him danger their cash once more, and inside two a lot more plays, everyone was in the black. The concept itself is associated to economic troubles with a bloomery based technologies (see my previous element about smelting processes ), producing high and medium carbon steel was very hard and pricey: only a small amount of the bloom was composed of that kind of steel, which was needed to develop excellent swords with good edge, capable of becoming hardened. On leading of that, the forging method itself wasn’t efficient at all, so a lot of the material was lost for the duration of the making. So we could guess that differential hardening was a deliberate choice when it comes to swords, to receive a blade optimized in the reduce and extremely sharp. Briefly speaking, a metal employed for gun barrels should be capable of handling massive stresses, simply because it will knowledge huge amounts of pressure (more than 50,000 pounds per square inch or 340,000 kpa for metric speakers). It ought to be powerful and elastic and ideally, it ought to be effortless to machine and somewhat low cost. With that said, let’s appear at the very first of the metal alloys: steel. 4 DuPont had also been editing the Division of Environmental Protection’s statements. One particular draft news release, written in March 2002, would have warned Wood County residents that C8 was getting spread around the location by air as well as water. According to records obtained by the Charleston Gazette, the department killed the release after a DuPont lawyer complained. Other beneficial stats about the pencils are it takes 2 clicks to extend lead from the PMG and three from the Import to make adequate lead from the Import. The Import is quieter than the PGM but there is a lot more resistance to the push button making it harder to press. Both have cavernous lead reservoirs but resist filling them up. Most pencils function very best with about a dozen or so pieces of lead. The larger the lead diameter the fewer the number of leads it will hold. And lastly you might have noticed that neither pencil has an eraser. alternatively they have a clean out rod beneath the push button. A excellent idea! To undesirable Pentel didn’t function this on the rest of their pencils. Common components for gutters are metal like copper, steel, aluminum and zinc. The decreased construction time from using structural steel supplies will supply a lot of savings. Labour and overhead expenses from construction are not the only savings you will have when you use structural steel. In the lengthy-run, you will have more expense benefits—upfront and lifetime savings. If you keep in mind, as I’ve stated prior to in this post and in the prior a single, the higher carbon steel utilised in both instances (tamahagane or sagegane) is as well higher for sword creating. On prime of that, all through the piled structure you will have distinct bits with distinct carbon so you have to homogenize the billet. In fact the whole series of Graph, Slimline pencils are now out of production. One, the PG7, has been out of production considering that the 70’s although the other people have been out of production since the late 90’s and early 2000’s and some have turn out to be very rare and hard to discover like the PG7. One the original Graph Pencil, in .five mm was produced apparently only in 1969. It is a little different in appearance than the others and is almost certainly the rarest and most expensive. The other people in the series are the PG2 .two mm, PMG, .3 mm, PG4, .four mm, PG5, .5 mm and the PG7, .7 mm. There is no .9 mm. To see photos of the complete series adhere to this link to the page on the internet web site “Leadholder” Thanks to Dennis B. Smith for the info on his internet site, “Leadholder”.
So to address all these points briefly: a) this is quite the opposite monosteel swords are structurally stronger according to Alan Williams, due to the fact they do not have weld lines in the material that weaken the integrity of the blade, b) Japanese blades had been also produced with a monosteel structure and c) this is basically not correct, beside some of the so called incredibly challenging laminated structure were never ever observed in reality and have no true positive aspects more than the simplistic ones. In the preceding handful of posts, we’ve seen a lot of detail about the so-named damascus barrels. We’ve also noticed a genuine damascus barrel is really lovely and needs a lot of labor to create and is consequently pricey. In our last post, we also saw how fake damascus barrels had been developed. The quantity of inexpensive fakes that had been made served to decrease the public’s perception of damascus barrels in basic, because the fake barrels burst a lot simpler and wore out swiftly. In reality, if you chose to make the sword out of a single material, you can not have various carbon content material across the blade so you require to chose an optimal level, which is around .4 and .6 %. A much far more complex and typically ritualized method has to be carried out when the smith wanted to create a laminated sword due to the fact he has to forge weld all the different steel (namely the core and the jacket) into a single piece and then start to hammer it. Color case hardening makes use of a related process to the above, but the parts are initially cleaned of all oils and greases just before being put into the container with the high-carbon compounds. The approach is the same as above, except for the duration of the quenching approach. If the steel in quenched unevenly, different colors (blues, yellows and oranges) are produced on the steel’s surface. Some men and women would move the steel in a jerking motion into the quenching bath to create color bars. Numerous London gun makers of the 1800s utilised a slightly different technique: the quenching bath would be agitated with lots of air bubbles, which produces a mottled colour impact on the component. Adding a small potassium nitrate to the water in the quenching bath also adds a bit of additional brightness to the colors formed. The barrel and cylinder had been of course made of carbon steel. The guns crane was held shut by the ejector rod, that required to be pulled to the front to release the cylinder from the frame, a straightforward solution that essential no extra machining. The drill bit is made of tool steel or tungsten carbide (these days, tungsten carbide is a lot more widespread). The diameter of the drill bit is slightly smaller sized than the required diameter of the barrel. For instance, if the barrel bore is five.56 mm, the drill bit is developed drill a hole slightly smaller than this (say 5.35 – 5.40 mm.) Note that the drill bit is asymmetric (V-shaped) and only has a cutting edge on one particular side. The drill bit is also ground so that the forces acting on the cutting edge will maintain the drill bit centered in the operate piece automatically. The drill bit is also hollow, as can be observed by the two holes at the end of the drill bit. The drill bit is mounted to a steel tube and then oil is pumped below stress through the drill bit holes. As the drill bit tends to make its way through the barrel, the oil serves to keep the drill bit cool. Also, the metal shavings are carried out of the barrel by the oil by means of the V-channel in the middle of the bit. The oil is then passed via a series of sieves to filter out the metal shavings and the oil is recycled into the primary tank. In theory, a sword with a tougher edge could perform greater in the reduce, but the performance is heavily dependent on other elements like edge geometry, skill of the wielder and so on. So there are modest trade offs to evaluate when picking which structure using. Now why did we mention 4140 and 4150 steels? That is because these are steel grades that are heavily utilized in the firearms industries to make barrels (they are also employed to make gears, axles, connecting rods and so forth. by the automotive industry). These steels belong to the “chrome-molybdenum” or “chrome-moly” family members. While these alloys do include chromium, it is not as significantly as the chromium content material located in stainless steel and as a result, they have less corrosion resistance compared to stainless steel. Nevertheless, chrome-moly steels can be surface hardened, exactly where the interior of the piece retains its properties, but the surface is hardened against wear and tear.
Back in Evart, Jerry could not think the news. The framing of the story—that somehow he was a cheater, that massive lottery players had been screwing more than the tiny guy—struck him as preposterous. How was purchasing tickets in bulk, at the right time, cheating? And wasn’t the income he spent on tickets making its way into the budgets of cities and towns all more than Massachusetts? If any individual was the big guy, Jerry huffed, it was the lottery itself, which took a 40 percent cut of every single ticket he bought. Anyway, prefab buildings suborn by their universality: you do not need to have to be a builder or engineer – you just buy steel building components and construction becomes the sphere you must not fear. With prefab-constructing elements you can very easily assemble a shed, a barn, a modest warehouse and a lot of different items. Prefabricated steel elements are broadly employed in industrial engineering as effectively as they save time, funds and labor: warehouses, plants, ice palaces, riding-halls and hangars are generally made of separate prefabricated metal constructing components. As for the payouts: Far more than $50 billion goes to players in prizes, while $22 billion flows to public programs like education, senior assistance, land conservation, veteran support and pension funds. This is why lotteries don’t have a lot of political enemies: the funds is impossible for elected officials of each parties to resist. At the very same time, as the lottery has grown stronger, so has the basic case against it: that the lottery is regressive, taking from the poor and providing to the rich. A single assessment in the Journal of Gambling Research in 2011 concluded that the poor are nevertheless the major patron of the lottery” yet another study, carried out by the State University of New York at Buffalo in 2012, identified that guys, black individuals, Native Americans and those in disadvantaged neighborhoods play the game at greater rates than other folks. Over the past 40 years, the lottery has played a essential function in the broader shift of the American tax burden away from the wealthy it is far less difficult, politically, for states to raise money by means of a lottery than through much more progressive means like corporate or house taxes. According to the investigative reporter David Cay Johnston , who won a Pulitzer for his operate on the inequalities in the American tax code, 11 states made more from the lottery in 2009 than they did from corporate income tax. We have currently discussed damascus barrel grades such as the “laminated steel” and “best damascus steel” in this post previously The greatest barrel was a laminated steel (a variety of damascus steel) barrel, followed by a Whitworth fluid steel barrel, followed by an additional damascus steel (“Ideal damascus” grade) and a Siemens-Martin steel barrel. Note how English barrels dominate the test because some of the foreign types (especially Belgian barrels) utilized weaker iron in their manufacture. Whilst Whitworth steel completed second in this test, they have been just getting started in perfecting the technology and it soon became a lot more affordable and faster to manufacture as nicely. By 1895, when they held another test, Whitworth steel came first in this test. The tip protector is a exclusive item. It is an unpolished cone of punched sheet metal. I am assuming that the crudeness of the surface of the cone is for simple gripping. The surface is exceptionally suited for this. If it were chromed or polished then one particular would have a challenging time removing it as it snaps in location rather strongly. The concept behind the cone is to shield the tip of the pencil from sticking the user when the pencil is carried in the breast pocket. Makers of drafting and mechanical pencils have been trying just about every way attainable to give this protection. I can see the reasoning behind it, but to me it’s a mute point as I use a pocket protector. In it I keep a .three mm pencil, a refillable stick eraser, a ballpoint pen with a touch screen pad, a click sort fine point gel pen, affine point permanent marker a twin tipped screwdriver and a small expendable magnet. I utilised to carry an X-Acto knife as nicely but I lost it. My lovely wife calls it my “Geek Stuff:. It was later discovered that just before carding, if the part is immersed in boiling hot water initial, this stops the rusting method. Additionally, the part turns a deep blue or black color rather of reddish brown. This is due to the black oxide of iron (Fe3O4) being formed alternatively of the red oxide of iron (Fe2O3). This process is known as “cold bluing” instead of “browning” and is the only true distinction between the two processes.